Gender wasn’t on the development agenda until the 1970s. At that time, it was recognized that development could harm women as modernization brings increased specialization to the labor market. Men move into more diverse, well-paid jobs than women due to mobility issues. A school of thought called Women in Development (WID) was created with the notion that we need to include women in the development process. Later, a new school of thought–Gender and Development (GAD)–was created, which focused on the relationship between women and men and their relationship with development. Gender issues can be divided into practical gender needs and strategic gender interests and can be dealt with by “gender mainstreaming,” or “streaming gender away.” Gender equality shouldn’t be seen as a means to an end of economic productivity, but as a goal in itself. This chapter is part of Module 6: Sites of Gendered Poverty and Inequality.