Agriculture and horticulture in the ancient Mediterranean were carried out by the ancient Egyptians and the Hittites, among others who are able to make use of natural river irrigation in alluvial grounds. In ancient Egypt, annual inundation of the floodplain permitted a single crop season over two-thirds of the alluvial ground. These ancient civilizations invented tools for irrigation, such as the shaduf. The Egyptian recognizes three seasons: flooding, planting, and harvesting, and kept livestock as well. Society was highly stratified and social status expressly displayed, farmers making up a big bulk of society. This chapter is part of Module 2: History of Agriculture in Mediterranean Basin and Mediterranean Diet.