The increasing trend in the Mediterranean region for temperature is much higher than the global averages; the Med is a hotspot of climate change with very high temperature change and create decreases in rainfall expected. There will be greater climate variability with more extreme and unpredictable events. While 7% of the world’s population lives in the Med, they have only 3% of the world’s water resources and many live with less than 1000 cubic meters per year. Water is integral to the agricultural sector, and the agricultural sector is a big player in climate change due to greenhouse gas emissions and the use of fertilizers. Agriculture is the the third largest sector producer of greenhouse gas emissions after energy production and transport. Intensive greenhouse agriculture has higher CO2 emissions than natural field agricultural, so there is attention that needs to be paid to the methods of agriculture that are the least intensive. Consumers are aware of this and rely on labeling systems to know the impact of their food. Food that is good for our health is also good for the environment. Organic farming, soil conservation of carbon, reforestation, and minimal tillage, biochar technology, and bioenergy are all ways to be sustainable. Efficiency is key, especially in eterms of water and soil and in using ICT. This chapter is part of Module 6: How to Achieve the Sustainable Development Goals (SDG) in the Mediterranean – The Way Forward II. Sustainable Farming Systems Under Environmental and Climatic Constraints.
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