The number of international migrants and refugees has grown tremendously between 1970 and 2015 and approximately 7% of international migrants are children between the ages of zero and nine. This chapter includes the story of the Kudri family who were Syrian refugees and did not survive the journey. There are serve consequences of exposure to armed conflict and displacement from toxic stress and inadequate shelter, nutrition, sanitation, and stimulation. UNICEF’s peace building initiative addresses four kinds of violence: direct, indirect, repressive, and alienating, for which ECD programs can promote many different kinds of approaches, including promoting pro-social behavior and promoting governance that makes a difference for young children. The International Rescue Committee has implemented a program called learning in a healing classroom, which addresses both socio-emotional and cognitive development in an integrated way and there is hope for this method.
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