In this chapter, Professor Sachs talks about current challenges of poverty and inequality that he believes will give rise to a new kind of globalization in the 21st century, and gives estimates on tackling the challenge. Although 1 billion people still struggle for daily survival, extreme or absolute poverty has come down sharply during the age of industrial globalization; this is shown with graphs and supported with historical evidence. Inequality, however, is high and generally rising, and is measured by the Gini coefficient. Sachs discusses the factors determine income inequality.
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