In this chapter, Karl Statteger discusses coastal geology and river mouth systems and deltas. Rivers form deltas at their mouth and bring high quantities of sediment to the world ocean, and low lying delta plains are highly vulnerable to a wide range of natural and manmade hazards. Deltas are important coastal environments and natural stable landforms and provide space for rich and biodiverse ecosystems. Deltas are intensely used and modified by human activities, and many delays support intense agriculture and fisheries. Deltaic coasts are highly vulnerable to human impacts and suffer long term from climate driven sea level rise, and short term from groundwater, oil, and gas extraction and damming.
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