To develop within a safe operating space, there must be a global transition to a renewable energy system, as growing economies are projected to have growing energy use until mid-century. Since the mid-1950s, fossil fuel and cheap energy has enabled economic growth; the era of cheap oil is now over, and there is a risk of turning to coal and fracking for energy as opposed to renewables. The necessity to stay within the global carbon budget is coupled with the recognition that polluting energy systems are becoming more expensive and less efficient. The long-term future is one predominantly supplied from solar energy.
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