Financial exclusion can exist due to involuntary or voluntary reasons. Involuntary financial exclusion arises due to economic or social reasons as financial institutions are reluctant to provide financial services to the poorer sections of the population. Voluntary financial exclusion stems from cultural or religious reasons.
Providing Shariah-compliant financing could increase access to financial services. To enhance financial inclusion, Islamic banks should increase the provision of financial services to the poorer sections of the population.
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