One of then negative aspects of food globalization is homogenization. An instance of this is that in all European countries, meat consumption, has increased by at least 100%. Intake of carbohydrates and soft beverages have also increased leading to the epidemic of overweight. Healthy diet choices, like whole grains are associated with the reduction of type II diabetes and cardiovascular disease. In refining our foods, like a kernel of wheat, we discard the most nutritious parts of the kernel. The traditional Mediterranean diet is a model of a nutritionally balanced and healthy way of eating, first described by Ancel Keys in the 1960s. This diet is based mostly on vegetable products, along with cereals, pasta, whole wheat bread, legumes, nuts, olive oil, fish, and occasional meat, diary products, and animal fat. Looking at the food pyramid, we should eat mostly foods of vegetable origin, then fish or dairy products, then those that should only be consumed occasionally. We also need to take into consideration the impact of food on the environment through emissions, how the good is produced, packaged, transported, and cooked, because each step requires energy, contributes to health and produces CO2. The foods that have the most beneficial impact on our health have the most beneficial impact on the environment. A case study about the North Karelia project in Finland to deal with issues of cardiovascular health in the 1950s is included to prove how diet affects health. Educational campaigns are necessary to inform about healthy decisions outside of the family. This chapter is part of Module 9: How to Achieve the Sustainable Development Goals (SDG) in the Mediterranean – The Way Forward V. Nutrition and Education.