This chapter discusses the diffusion of industrialization within Europe and around the world, and specifically its impact on India and Africa. Professor Sachs shows a map of European empires around the year 1800; notably, Africa was not yet colonized, most likely due to disease burdens of malaria and other diseases. The 19th century was relatively peaceful in Europe, and allowed countries to both industrialize and conquer other lands (particularly in the second half of the century). At the Conference of Berlin in 1884, the European powers divided Africa among themselves, and many other parts of the world were colonized in other ways during the Age of Divergence.
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