This chapter provides an overview of the nine targets associated with SDG 15, which relates to terrestrial ecosystems or Life on Land. The targets focus on: preserving freshwater, sustainably managing deforestation, combating desertification, preserving mountain forests, preventing the extinction of threatened species, sharing benefits, reducing the impact of invasive alien species, and integrating ecosystem biodiversity values. Forests are not static; they go through a history of disturbances and are very resilient, even to human-induced threats like logging. Forests are the most biodiverse terrestrial ecosystems on earth. For these reasons, forests are essential elements to achieve the SDGs.