This chapter discusses the concept of communities in the context of safeguarding intangible cultural heritage. It reflects on who the communities are and how they can be identified in relation to their intangible cultural heritage. The question is raised of why only the communities and groups that practice and transmit their heritage can decide what their intangible cultural heritage is and what meaning it carries for them. Learners will understand how members of a group or community can have different roles in the enactment of their living heritage: for example, as practitioners, bearers, custodians, transmitters or as participants. The dynamic nature of communities is also discussed.
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