Three mechanisms that are important for terminating transformative changes are the need for more coordinated action, the need for good policies that enable change, and the need for public-private partnerships that provide greater strengths in implementing many of the things needed. Market-driven economic and technological growth alone will not be sufficient to make the necessary deep changes in the agricultural and food sector, so we need good governance. There is a massive diversity of actors making decision in most countries, which leads to uncoordinated action. There are four key steps for coordinated action: a comprehensive national and sub-national agricultural development strategy and plan, and an investment plan, that is inclusive of the actors in the space and is based on evidence; to have the right laws, policies, and implementation offices that coordinate the activities of multiple actors in a transparent and accountable manner; scalable systems that support stakeholder engagement; and scorecards that utilize new data and technologies to provide feedback to governments on the progress towards the SDGs. Subsidies are often provided for inputs to farmers in the ways of seeds and fertilizers. If these become permanent entitlements, they can lead to corruption and overuse. Since 1996, the world area of crops with genetic modifications has significantly increase, and therefore there is a wide diversity of regulations with regard to genetically modified crops. Despite the scientific evidence of the benefits and safety of GM crops, societal factors and well-funded opposition foster resistance to this modern technology to the detriment of smallholder farmers. Policies should incentivize action and positive behavior change, should engage stakeholders, should be evidence-based, should encourage growth of the agribusiness sector, should allow good monitoring, real innovation, and should be critically reviewed and changed. There are a few minimum requirements for public-private partnerships: you need to have a joint vision and long-term commitment, clear products mutual benefits, you need to invest in public goods as a private company, you need to be transparent in governance, you need to have trust and be willing to learn and adjust.
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