The Mediterranean region is the cradle of some very important civilizations, which were and are interconnected in many ways, one of those ways begin the food system; the agriculture, production processes, and diets of people in the Mediterranean have many common features. Mediterranean challenges do not recognize borders, and education and innovation are key to promoting values and finding solutions to these problems. The challenges to agricultural systems re first of all environmental; there is severe water stress in many areas of the Mediterranean, which will lead to lower crop yields and decreased biodiversity. There are social challenges, such as imbalanced demographic trends, changes in dietary trends, and cultural local value change. There are also obviously economic implications, from transportation, to a lack of entrepreneurship, to the relationships between farmers and firms and financial institutions. Education and innovation of technology, organization, and social institutions is very important for sustainable development. This chapter is part of Module 1: The Mediterranean Challenges Around Food and Agriculture.