The gastronomic ritual and cuisine of the Mediterranean is similar throughout. Leguminous vegetables like peas, lentils, chick peas, and oils produced in Syria and Palestine are made into the breads and porridges that are made of wheat and barley in the Near East. Numerous fruits, such as apples, pomegranates, almonds, dates and figs, grapes for wine, meat from cattle, sheep and poultry, and milk and fish make up a large portion of the Med diet. The Columbian Exchange brought new world crops such as maize, potatoes, and manioc to Europe and North Africa. The Arabs introduced new products and farming methods to agronomic sciences in the region; they are responsible for the spread of citrus fruit, rice, sugar, and pasta, as well as aromatic, medicinal, and coloring plants. With the migration of people and ideas came the migration of different foods and crops. This chapter is part of Module 2: History of Agriculture in Mediterranean Basin and Mediterranean Diet.