Governance matters because cities are systems of systems that are situated in particular geographies that are defined by historical and cultural processes and are deeply embedded in regional and national socio-ecological systems. We can learn about governance from the history of cities as self-governing entities over the last 2,000 years, which has evolved in recent history with the growth of the nation-state and nationalism. In many countries nowadays, there is a two-tiered system of governance and cities have different roles of governance. Global historical examples are given and comparative analysis is done in oder to compare regions that face a common set of challenges despite their diverse histories and cultures.
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