This chapter is about ocean acidification and explores the chemistry of ocean acidification, the consequences, and the connections within and outside of the planetary boundaries framework. Professor Noone describes the carbon cycle and the dissolution of carbon dioxide in the ocean as carbonic acid, which dissociates into H+ and makes water more acidic. The consequences of acidification include decreased ability of marine organisms to create shells and a decreasing calcification rate, and the death of, coral reefs. This is one of multiple stressors that marine organisms face. Ocean acidification is connected to climate boundaries because the driver for both is the same -- how much carbon we emit. Acidification also affects how much food we can collect from marine sources, and has links to chemical pollution, nitrogen and phosphorus cycling, and other processes. Professor Noone ends this chapter with the quantification of the ocean acidification boundary in terms of aragonite saturation.
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