This chapter discusses the nature of the negotiations process of the 193 governments that are party to the UN Framework Convention on Climate Change, which is to move all parties to Pareto improving outcomes. These negotiations have proven to be incredible difficult; that is why the world aims for COP21 to be such a success. Professor Sachs outlines 8 reasons that make climate negotiations hard compared to any other kind of negotiation. the first is that gong from business as usual to a cooperative Pareto efficient outcome is not an immediate outcome. The second is that the costs will be felt significantly before the benefits will come in a scheme of delayed gratification. The third is that there are enormous uncertainties about technologies, costs, timings, and the complex science of climate change. The fourth is that the transformation require is not simply state d or self-evident, but requires global scale change across numerous sectors and affecting billions of people. The fifth is that there is nothing equal about the status of the countries that are negotiating these agreements, in terms of wealth, contribution, or capability. The sixth is that it is hard to agree what is fair. the seventh is that there is a huge problem of trust between countries. And the eight is that of very particular, powerful interests, such as big oil companies. These negotiations can’t be viewed as a zero sum game, but have to be viewed from the point that everyone is facing a collective problem that threatens everyone’s livelihoods. This video is part of the module The Main Challenges of Climate Change Negotiations.
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