Violence against women can be seen on three levels: the international, national, and intimate levels. We can look at psychological as well as patriarchal factors, and find the root causes behind reasons like alcohol abuse. One root cause discussed is a societal crisis in masculinity. Feminists prefer to think about violence as being learned and socialized. There are three aspects to thinking about why men are violent. These are: the notion of impaired masculinity; challenges to the patriarchal system; and external factors such as war. This violence can also be the threat of physical danger through fear, which limits a woman's or girl’s mobility and life chances. This chapter is part of Module 7: Gendered Rights and Violence.
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