This chapter discusses poverty reduction and rural development through a discussion of the linkages between farming and non-farming in rural areas and the linkage to urbanization over time, as well as by looking at pathways of development. Almost all of the farming in the world is self-motivated family farming instead of corporate or plantation-style farming. Successful farm families add in non-agricultural work as well, such as building houses or making bricks, artisanal tasks to support the community’s demands by being productive citizens using natural resources to support the extraordinary pressure of rising rural population densities. Agribusiness consists of enterprises with large economies of scale and opportunities for companies to serve up to millions of farmers and non-farm customers. They can cause major threats to both health and to sustainability, as well as to social inclusiveness. As the rural population changes, people are cultivating regions that were not previously civilized with harsh environments. Rural-urban linkages then become crucial for poverty alleviation and sustainable development in rural areas as people seek to acquire public services as well as market opportunities that are available in cities. There is migration-temporary and permanent- and differing degrees of infrastructure, from electricity to roads to communication technology.
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