This chapter uses two examples to give further insight into the processes that have been incurred in the context of social exclusion. First–The British assimilated or discarded the Aboriginal indigenous peoples of Australia, but made treaties with the Maori peoples of New Zealand. The treaties had different meanings in both languages and resulted in the Maori losing their lands to the British. But in the 1970s, dispossessed Maori were able to gain Restitution through structural adjustment. Second–In Malaysia, there were three dominant groups: the Malay, the Chinese, and the Indians, with the original Malay people of the state not in a dominant position. An affirmative action-type article was included in the constitution to empower Malays and was meant to cease 15 years after commencement. Due to social protests, the article is now permanently in the Constitution. This chapter is part of Module 8: The Nature of Social Exclusion: Minorities and Indigenous Peoples.
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