This chapter discusses the drivers that impact food systems and health and nutrition outcomes, first focusing on natural resource capital, and then climate change, urbanization, food prices, and social unrest. These drivers impact value chains, the food environment, consumer behavior, and diets. Food supplies are becoming more homogenous and diets are becoming less diverse, presenting risks in climate change adaptation and in biodiversity loss. Dietary guidelines don’t match up with the food supply and what the agricultural system can provide; natural resources and dietary needs must be realigned. The poor, the vulnerable, and those living gin coastal areas will be the most affected by the natural disasters that will be more frequent and severe as a result of climate change, the effects of which must be mitigated. With climate change, more children will fall into the stunting, wasting, and micronutrient deficiency categories, With population pressure, there will be massive migration to urban centers and migration due to climate change. The question will be whether or not those urban centers can support that amount of people, with current health systems, food systems, infrastructure, etc. Food price volatility can lead to shocks and coping strategies at the household level. Social unrest is often associated with rapid food insecurity and rising food prices. As “a hungry man is an angry man,” addressing undernutrition and hunger often has implications on conflict and vice versa.
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