Land and water degradation in North Africa are adding stress to regions that are under pressure from global environmental change. Land degradation has resulted from population growth as well as soil erosion, salinization, pollution and desertification, which have led to a loss in productive land. This region also is at risk of significant water shortage along with increasing food demand. Jessour is an ancient runoff water harvesting technique from southern Tunisia that is used to cultivate fruit trees, legumes, barley and wheat. The accumulation of sand dunes can lead to desertification, but can be presented by setting up fences that stop the wind from blowing sand to accumulate. Once these have accumulated, they can be fixed definitely by planting adapted species such as acacia. Rain water can be harvested in arid or semiarid areas a s a primary or supplementary water sources for drinking water. Agroforestry is a land use type where crops and trees are grown together in the same place at the same time, so that multiple products are produced while for example, carbon is sequestered in the forest. This chapter is part of Module 6: How to Achieve the Sustainable Development Goals (SDG) in the Mediterranean – The Way Forward II. Sustainable Farming Systems Under Environmental and Climatic Constraints.