This chapter discusses challenges for sustainable farming globally and in the Mediterranean region. Dynamic population growth poses the first problem; by 2050, the world population will probably be about 9.2 billion people. This rapid population growth is occurring in urban areas rather than rural areas, and now most people live in megapolis, or cities of more than 20 million people; by 2050, 8 out of 10 people will live in urban areas. The availability of land per capita is shrinking, and as the demand for food increases, the question of who will produce the food necessary becomes more of an issue. Land availability is also related to our diet; livestock takes up more land than crops. Climate change is causing more extreme events and weather patterns to change, and will force humans to adapt to changing conditions and make our systems more resilient. This chapter is part of Module 6: How to Achieve the Sustainable Development Goals (SDG) in the Mediterranean – The Way Forward II. Sustainable Farming Systems Under Environmental and Climatic Constraints.