In the Anthropocene, we are entering a realm where interconnectedness translates into teleconnections, in which changes in one part of the world impact other parts of the world and can trigger surprises and inconvenient feedbacks. This interconnectedness means that events that occur based on global drivers can have unexpected outcomes; these can be seen in the global energy, transport, and economic systems. The internet is a good example of the hyper-connectivity of the world; but the key insight in this chapter is that we’ve moved into into a world where ALL the components of the Earth systems are essential for the economy and well-being of the world. A graph is used to show how risks are perceived in the hyperconnected and interdependent world, and examples are given, including the civil war and drought in Syria. There is empirical evidence to suggest that there have been an increased number of extreme weather events in the past fifty years, and the impact on the food and climate systems are used to understand system change.
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