In this chapter, Professor Sachs joins the ancient world of the Roman Empire with the world of globalization that commences with Columbus and Vasco da Game in the last decade of the 15th century. He discusses the rise of Islam as a world religion beginning in 622, and the spread of Islam with empire across Eurasia. The Islamic Ottoman Empire was based in an ecological region similar to the Roman Empire; it also played a key role in technological innovation. The Chinese Song Dynasty was also notable for its innovation and diffusion of technology, including the compass, paper currency, and the printing press.
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