This chapter discusses the origin of agriculture since early human communities in the Med region started depending on hunting 13,000 years ago in the Fertile Crescent, where domestication of the animal is through to have taken place. The main grain cries of the Mediterraneans were wheat, barley, millet, and emmer, which were used to make products ranging from oil to beer. Olive oil was an important component of the ancient Mediterranean diet and a successful industrial activity in antiquity, used for many purposes including bathing and light. This chapter is part of Module 2: History of Agriculture in Mediterranean Basin and Mediterranean Diet.
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