Recently, a high level panel of experts on food security and nutrition has been created to advise the committee on world food security about how to promote more sustainable methods. A food system consists of all the elements-environment, people, inputs, processes, infrastructures, institutions, and activities that relate to the production, processing, distribution, preparation, and consumption of food and the outcomes of these activities, namely nutrition and health, socioeconomic growth and environmental sustainability. A sustainable food system is one that ensures food security and nutrition for all in a way that the economic, social, and environmental basis to generate food security for future generations is not compromised. There are key inputs and elements of the food system. At the core of any food system are key activities that can be grouped into five categories: production, storage, exchange and distribution, processing and packaging, retail marketing and advertising. Rural areas are integral to sustainable development, and universities are trying to create societies and transform development specific to regions and communities. This chapter is part of Module 1: The Mediterranean Challenges Around Food and Agriculture.